Wind Energy Systems
The use of the power of the wind dates back to ancient times. Sailing ships and their mills are shown as the first way to benefit from wind power. Later, wind power was used in works such as grain grinding, water pumping and tree cutting. Today, wind energy systems are used to generate electricity. So what are these wind energy systems?
What is Wind Energy?
Wind energy systems are given the name given to the kinetic energy that the wind has with the created air currents. The energies of movement in the wind are called systems that can be converted first into mechanical energies and then into electrical energies. It is said that wind energy is not harmful to nature and it is a clean and endless energy source.
How Do Wind Energy Systems Work?
• Wind energy starts with the sunrise. The parts of the cold air layer formed at night close to the ground immediately begin to warm up with the rays of the sun. As you will remember from physics lessons, heated air expands and rises. At this moment, the cold air layer in the atmosphere descends towards the ground. Wind is formed by the displacement of warm and cold air.
• The power plants rotate the shaft to which the propellers are connected by the movement of the wind. With a suitable generator, this motion energy transforms into electrical energies.
Wind Energy Systems Turbine Types
Turbines used in wind machines, which have undergone various evolutions throughout history, are of different types. Some of these wind turbines, which have been developed in different qualities and types, have now become commercial. Wind turbines are divided into three groups according to their axis of rotation.
• Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
• Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
• Inclined Axis Wind Turbines
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
In these turbines; The axis of rotation is parallel to the wind direction and the blades are perpendicular to the wind direction. In these turbines, the rotor rotates faster as the number of rotor blades decreases. The efficiency of these turbines is about 45%. The EARTH should be placed at a height of 20-30m from the ground in general and 10m above the surrounding obstacles. The ratio obtained by dividing the wind speed by the rotor blade tip speed is called the blade tip speed ratio (λ). If;
• λ= 1–5 Multi-bladed rotor,
• λ= 6–8 Three-bladed rotor,
• λ= 9–15 Two-bladed rotor,
• λ>15 Single blade rotor is used.
Horizontal axis wind turbines also vary as systems that have different numbers of rotor blades and take the wind from the front or take the wind from the rear.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
The blades of these turbines, whose rotation axes are perpendicular and vertical to the wind direction, are also vertical. Axis of rotation wind turbines have the advantage of accepting the wind from all directions. These turbines drag or lift the wind. First moves are unreliable. The efficiency of these turbines is about 35%. Since the generator and gearbox of the turbines can be installed at ground level, they do not need a tower. Therefore, they have to operate at low wind speeds and do not need the “Yaw” mechanism. They are designed for low wind speeds and pumping small amounts of water. Since the increase in the number of blades brings with it the material weight, it works inefficiently at high wind speeds. Approximately 0.5kW power is obtained from the turbine with a rotor diameter of 5m. Steel ropes are needed to connect these turbines to the ground surface.
Inclined Axis Wind Turbines
They are wind turbines whose axis of rotation is positioned at a certain angle with the wind. The usage areas are very limited. As Tetragaz, we make wind energy systems and their production.